A number of myths persist about people's allegedly ever-shortening attention spans. Many arguments about the wonders of microlearning are predicated on this idea. But what does the science say? Neuroscience, behavioral economics, and consumer psychology all offer insights into how we manage and allocate attention. Additionally, our ability to manage attention and focus seems to be related to our abilities to allocate willpower and to influence how we make decisions. This session looks at what the current science says about how attention, willpower, and decision making interact, and how that influences the design of e-learning environments. This session was recorded at the ATD 2018 TechKnowledge conference in San Jose, California.